Coins of the Roman Republic

A modest collection of Republican (Roman) coinage with an emphasis on the decade of 90 - 80 BCE which featured the rise of the general Sulla and his eventual dictatorship in 82. For an overview of the structure of the Republican government, connect to Barbara McManus' site. For an overview of the coinage and an explanation of whose signatures appear on these coins, check out this site at Barry and Darling Ancient Coins.





IMAGE
DESCRIPTION
REFERENCE
Romans in Sicily 214-212 BCE Sextans AE 26 mm 13.1 gm
Obv: Head of Mercury right, wearing a helmet-like petasus, two pellets above.
Rev: Prow of a galley right, grain ear and ROMA above, two pellets below.
Minted in Sicily for Rome during 2nd Punic War.
Crawford 42/3
Anonymous 211-208 BCE AR Victoriatus (19 mm 2.68 g.)
Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right.
Rev: Victory standing right, erecting trophy, VB in field, ROMA in exergue.
RSC 36m, Crawford 95/1a
L. Saufeius 152 BCE AR denarius (3.91 g)
Obv: Helmted head of Roma right
Rev: Victory in biga right. Looks like USA, but it is LSA and ROMA in exergue.
Crawford 204/1; Sydenham 384
M. Junius 145 BCE AR denarius (3.49 g)
Obv: Helmted head of Roma right; behind, ass's head; before, X
Rev: Reverse: Dioscuri r.; below, M. IVNI; in exergue, ROMA.
Crawford 220/1
L. Sempr Pitio 148 BCE (24.55 g)
Obv: Head of Janus; PI TIO above.
Rx: 2 Prow right; L SEMP above I before; Roma below.
Crawford 216/2a
M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus. 137 BC. AR Denarius (3.91 gm).
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma left .
Rx: Apollo, holding branch and bow, in quadriga right.
Crawford 236/1c; Sydenham 489;
Baebia 12.
Q Fabius Labeo Denarius. 124 BC. 3.78 g.
Obv: LABEO before, ROMA behind, helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin.
Rev: Jupiter in quadriga right, prow below; Q FABI in ex.
Crawford 273/1; Syd 532. fabia1. No.1079.
M. Furius L.f. Philus. 119 BC - AR Denarius (3.63 g)
Obv: Laureate head of Janus; M FOVRI L F around.
Rx: Roma standing left erecting trophy, gallic arms around; ROMA right, PHLI in exergue.
Crawford 281/1; Syd 529
M Tullius Denarius. 119 BCE. 3.76 grams.
Helmeted head of Roma right, ROMA behind
Rev: Victory in quadriga right, wreath above, X below; M TVLLI in ex.
This reverse is generally thought to represent the moneyers ancestor's (Ser.Tullius) victory over the Sabines; he being the first Roman to recieve a laurel-wreath. Another non conflicting theory is that the wreath represents a famous eclipse that occurred on November 11th, 120 BC. The Romans declared this event indicated divine support for their recent conquering of southern France. More about possible astronomical symbols here.
Crawford 280/1, Syd 531, BMCRR (Italy) 502
Ti. Quinticus 112 -111 BCE (3.87 g)
Obv: Hercules back to front, facing left with club & lion skin.
Rx: 2 Horses with naked rider. G & pellet above; O DOS.S plus rat below.
Sydenham 570a
P Laeca Denarius. 110-109 BC. 3.6 g.
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right; P LCA behind
Rev: Roman soldier standing left, placing his hand on head of a citizen, lictor standing behind; PROVOCO in ex.
Crawford 301/1, Syd 571. porcia4. No.1071A
Q. Minucius Thermus M.f. 103 BC. AR Denarius (3.96 gm).
Obv: Helmeted head of Mars left.
Rev: Two warriors fighting, the one on the left protects fallen comrade, the other wears horned helmet.
Ex: BP Murphy
Crawford 319/1; Sydenham 592; Minucia 19
Q. Titius. 90 BCE.
Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right, wearing winged diadem
Pegasus springing right, Q TITI on base.
Ex: Numisma coins
Crawford 341/1; Syd 691
Q. Titius. 90 BCE. AR Denarius. 90 BC.
Head of young Bacchus right
Pegasus springing right from a tablet on which is inscribed Q TITI.
Ex: Numisma coins
Crawford 341/2
Q. Titius. 90 BCE. AE AS (9.26 gm).
Obv: Janus head.
Rev: Prow of Galley, star before, above Q TITI.
Ex: HD Rauch auction 9/23, lot 488
Crawford 341/4d
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi. 90 BC. AR Denarius (3.64 g)
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right; trophy cup before.
Rev: Horseman galloping right, carrying palm.
The image of the horseman refers to the Ludi Apollinares, established in 212 BC. The annual celebration of these games was originally proposed by the praetor L.Calpurnius Piso, an ancestor of the moneyer.
Acording to Richard Schaefer, this is a rare variant with possibly only two other known examples.
Crawford 344/1a; Syd 698
L. Titirius L. F. Sabinus - 89 BCE (3.64 g)
Obv: Head of King Tatius rt., SABIN behind, palm before.
Rev: Two Roman soldiers, each bearing a woman in his arms.
This family traced its descent from the Sabines and perhaps from King Tatius himself. The Sabines were neighbors of the early Romans and the legend of the rape of the Sabine women figures strongly in Roman lore. This event was, and continues to be, a favorite subject of artists. The following link will take you to a rendition of Livy's account of the story.
Ex: BP Murphy
Crawford 344/1a; Syd 698
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus. 89 BC. AR Denarius (3.89 gm).
Head of Tatius right, palm below chin; SABIN behind, A.PV before
L TITVRI in exergue, Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw their shields on her.
Ex: Cayon Auction, Lot #393
Crawford 344/2c; Sydenham 699a
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus. 89 BC. AR Denarius (3.85 gm).
Head of Tatius right; SABIN behind
scepter in exergue, Victory in biga right, L TITVRI below horses.
Ex: Harlan Berk buy or bid sale 145 lot #148
Crawford 344/3; Sydenham 700
M. Porcius Cato. circa 89. AR Quinarius (1.74 gm, 13mm)
Obv.: Head of Liber r., wearing ivy-wreath; MCATO to right
Rev.: Victory seated r., holding paterae in r. hand; in exergue, [VICTRIX].
Ex: Tom Vossen
Sydenham 597c. Crawford 343/2b
VIBIA CAIUS VIBIUS caii filius Circa 89-88 BC (3.93 g)
Obv: PANSA behind laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev: Minerva holding sceptre and reins in quadriga galloping right; C.VIBIUS CF in exergue.
Sydenham 684
Cn. Lentulus Clodianus. Circa 88 BC. AR Denarius (3.93 gm)
Obv: Bust of Mars right.
Rev: Victory in biga right.
Crawford 345/1; Cornelia 50.
CNG Sale 61, Lot: 1333
L. Rubrius Dossenus 87 BC
AR denarius; 3.83 grams
Obv: laureate head of Jupiter left; Scepter behind.
Rev: Triumphal chariot with thunderbolt right.
Ex: BP Murphy
Sydenham 705; Rubria 1
L. & C. Memmius; L. F. Galeria 87 BC
AR denarius; 4.07 grams
Obv: laureate head of Saturn left; Harpa right.
Rev: Venus in biga galloping right; Cupid flying above.
Ex: BP Murphy
Crawford 349/1; Sydenham 712
Cn Lentulus. 87 BC AR Quinarius (1.58 gm, 16mm)
Obv: laureate head of Jupiter right.
Rev: Victory stg. r. placing wreath on trophy; in ex., CN. LENT.
Ex: Tom Vossen
Sydenham 703; Crawford 345/2
Anonymous AR Denarius. 86 BCE
3.70 grams
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo r., thunderbolt below.
Rev: Jupiter in quadriga right.
Ex: Frank Robinson
Crawford 350a/2a; Syd. 723
L Julius Bursio AR Denarius. 85 BCE
3.82 grams
Obv: Bust of Apollo Vejovis or Genius right, trident & control mark (Ax?) behind.
Rev: Victory in quadriga right; number above.
Crawford 353/1a; Syd. 724
Mn Fonteius Cf AR Denarius. 85 BCE
4.07 grams
Obv: Laureate Apollo Vejovis right; thunderbolt below, ROMA below.
Rev: Infant Genius riding goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, filleted thyrsos below.
Crawford 353/1a; Syd. 724
P. Furius Crassipes. 84 BC. AR Denarius (21mm, 4.24 gm).
Turreted head of Tyche right; AED. CUR and a foot behind
Curule chair inscribed P. FOVRIVS; CRASSIPES in exergue.
CNG Electronic Auction 88, Lot: 166
Crawford 356/1a; Sydenham 735; Furia 20
C Norbanus Denarius. 83 BCE.
Number behind, C NORBANVS below, diademed head of Venus right
Corn ear, fasces and caduceus.
Crawford 357/1b; Syd 739; norbana2. No.1067
Q. Antonius Balbus. 83-82 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (3.67 gm).
Laureate head of Jupiter right; S C behind
Q ANTO BALB/PR in exergue, Victory in quadriga right; B below horses.
ex: Carsley-Whetstone
Balbus was a supporter of Marius, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor of Sardinia. This issue was struck by order of the Senate which was dominated by members of the Marian party to pay the army preparing to resist the return of Sulla. Sulla, of course, was victorious and Balbus was removed from his position by L. Philippus and executed.
Crawford 364/1d; Sydenham 742b; BMCRR 2756
C. Mamilius Limetanus. 82 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (20mm, 4.07 gm).
Draped bust of Mercury right; caduceus and I behind
Ulysses walking right, greeted by his dog, Argos
ex: CNG electronic auction 108, Lot: 65.
Crawford 362/1; Sydenhan 741; Mamilia 6
L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (3.80 gm)
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma.
Rev: Sulla in quadriga, Victory flying above.
This coin provided a striking contrast to the coin above. The coin of Balbus reflects expectation and this coin shows reality.
Ex: CNG Auction 61; Ex Tony Hardy Collection
Crawford 367/5; Manlia 4
Caius Licinius Lucii Filius Macer circa 82 BC (3.76 g)
Obv: Young diademed naked bust of Apollo Vejovis seen from the back, hurling thunderbolt.
Rev: Pallas or Minerva holding spear and shield in quadriga galoping right; C.LICINIUS L.F./MACER in ex.
Sydenham 732
P. Crepusius, 82 BC (3.74 g)
Obv: Head of Apollo right, F below chin.
Rev: Horseman brandishing spear; VIII behind.
Ex: Berk.
Crawford 361/1b; Syd 738
L. Marcius Censorinus, C. Mamilius C.f. Limetanus and P. Crepusius. AR denarius (3.49 gm). Rome, ca. 82 BC.
Obv: L. CENSORIN, veiled, diademed and draped bust of Venus, right.
Rev: The satyr, Venus in biga, right, control numeral CXXIII above, C. LIMETA (partially ligate) below, P. CREPVSI in exergue.
Ex: Incitatus Coins
Crawford 360/1b. RSC Marcia 27. RCTV 284
L. Censorinus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.62 gm).
Obv: Head of Apollo right.
Rev: The satyr, Marsyas, standing left with wineskin over shoulder; behind him, column surmounted by figure of Minerva.
Ex: Ephesus Coins
This reverse refers to the musical contest between Apollo and Marsyas, which turned out to be disastrous for the latter.
Crawford 363/1d; Sydenham 737; Marcia 24
C. Valerius Flaccus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.85 gm).
Obv: Winged bust of Victory right; S behind.
Rev: Legionary eagle between two standards..
Ex: Mediterranean Coins
Crawford 365/1b; Sydenham 747b; Valeria 12b.
C. Annius T.f. T.n. and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis. 82-81 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.86 gm)
Obv:Diademed and draped bust of Anna Perenna right, scales beneath chin, winged caduceus behind; K below.
Rev: Elephant walking left. Victory in quadriga right; Q above; Spanish mint
Crawford 366/1b; Sydenham 748a; Annia 2.
Ex: CNG Elect. Auction 112 #211
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius, 81 BC (3.31 g)
Spain (as Imperator)
Obv:Diademed head of Pietas right, stork before.
Rev: Elephant walking left.
Crawford 374/1; Caecilia 43.
A. Postumius 81 BC (3.97 g)
Obv: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder. bucranium above.
Rev: Figure on Rock wall preparing to sacrifice bull, altar between with fire.
Ex: Rich Pearlman
RSC Postumia 7.
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (3.83 gm).
Obv: Veiled head of Hispania right with disheveled hair; HISPAN to right; obverse banker's mark.
Rev: Togate figure standing left between Roman eagle and fasces; ABIN left, NS right, POST.A.F in ex.
Crawford 372/2; Sydenham 746
L. Sulla. 81 BC. AR Denarius 3.45 grams. 18.07 mm.
Obv: Diademed head of Venus right, wearing earring and pearl necklace.
Rev: Double cornucopiae filled with fruit and flowers, bound with fillet; Q below.
L. sulla Felix had defeated Marius and was now undisputed dictator of the Roman empire. The reverse of this coin probably relates to a largesse presented to the Roman citizenry for its support of him during the conflict.
Ex: Lodge Antiquities.
Crawford 375/2; Sydenham 755; Kestner 3201; BMCRR East 17; Cornelia 33
C. Marius C. F. Capito 81 BCE (3.74 g)
Obv: Bust of Ceres right
Rev: Husbandman plowing field with yoke of oxen.
MARIA 7
C. Marius C. F. Capito 81 BCE (3.74 g)
Obv: Bust of Ceres right;
Rev: Husbandman plowing field with yoke of oxen.
Similar coin to above except this is a contemporary counterfeit - fouree
MARIA 7
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius. 81 BC. AR Denarius - 20mm (3.80 gm).
Obv: Diademed head of Pietas right, stork before.
Rev: IMPER in exergue, lituus and jug, all within laurel wreath.
Ex: Barry Murphy
Crawford 374/2; Sydenham 751; Caecilia 44
L. Procilius. 80 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (3.89 gm)
Obv: Head of Juno Sospita right.
Rev: Juno Sospita, holding spear and shield, in biga right, serpent below.
Ex: Barry Murphy
Crawford 379/2; Sydenham 772; Procilia 2
C. Publius, AR denarius 80 BCE (3.12 g)
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right; two feathers on helmet.
Rev: POVLICIVS Q F Hercules standing left, strangling Nemean lion, club at his feet, bow and quiver at left.
Sydenham 768
L. Procilius. 80 BCE. AR Denarius (3.74 g)
Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S ° C behind .
Rev: L ° PROCILI/F, Juno Sospita walking right, hurling spear and holding shield; serpent before.
Crawford 379/1; Sydenham 771; Procilia 1
L. Procilius. 80 BCE. AR Denarius (3.74 g)
Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S ° C behind .
Rev: L ° PROCILI/F, Juno Sospita walking right, hurling spear and holding shield; serpent before.
ex: Numizmatik Zagreb
Crawford 379/1; Sydenham 771; Procilia 1
CORNELIA 54, Cn. Lentulus, 76-75 B. C.
AR denarius; 3.53 grams
Obv: Diademed bust of Genius right, sceptre over shoulder, G . P . R .. above
Rev: Globe between rudder and sceptre, S. C. to right; CN . LEN . Q. below
Sydenham 752
L. Scribonius 62 BCE (3.65 g)
Obv: Diademed head of Bonus Eventus right
Rev: The Puteal Scribonium [well-head]; with two lyres and hammer at base.
Sear 297
M Aemilius Scarus & Pub Plautius Hypsaeus Denarius. 58 BCE. 3.63 g.
Obv: M SCAVR AED CVR EX S C, Nabatean king Aretas kneeling before camel
Rev: P HVPSAEVS AED CVR CAPTV C HVPSAE COS PREIVER, Jupiter in quadriga right; scorpion to left.
Cr422/1b, Syd 913. aemilia8. No.1046
L. Marcus Phillipus 56 BCE (3.56 g)
Obv: Diademed head of Ancus Marcius right
Rev: Equestrian statue on aqueduct; AQUA MAR between arches.
commemorating the aqueduct of his ancestor, Q. Marcius Rex, built 144-140 BC. The coin shows the head of Ancus Marcius, the fourth Etruscan king of Rome and the family's ultimate ancestor on the obverse and the arches of the aqueduct with the letters AQUA MAR within the arches, surmounted by an equestrian statue and the mintor's cognomen running counter-clockwise in the upper left. The coin shows the head of Ancus Marcius, the fourth Etruscan king of Rome and the family's ultimate ancestor on the obverse and the arches of the aqueduct with the letters AQUA MAR within the arches, surmounted by an equestrian statue and the mintor's cognomen running counter-clockwise in the upper left.
Crawford 425/1; Marcia 28
Man. Acilius Glabrio 55 BCE (3.56 g)
Obv: Laureate head of Salus right SELUTIS
Rev: Salus standing left leaning on column holding serpent MAN.ACILIUS III VIR. VALETV.
BMC 3944, Sydenham 922
M. Cato. 47-46 BC. AR Quinarius (1.76 g)
Obv: M CATO PRO PR, wreathed head of Liber right.
Rx: VICTRIX, Victory seated right, holding patera.
Mint - Utica
Crawford 462/1; Sydenham 1054
T Carisius Denarius. 46 BCE. 3.56 g.
Head of Juno Moneta right, MONETA behind, lock of hair on neck
Cap of Vulcan over anvil, tongs & hammer, all within laurel wreath.
Crawford 464/2; Sydenham 982
Mark Antony. 32-31 BCE AR Legionary Denarius(3.11 g)
Obv: Galley to the right
Rev: LEG V, aquila and two legionary standards.
Steeped in history this is the coinage minted by Antony in his efforts to obtain Roman Rule. You know the story. These coins have their own history however. These circulated long after Antony's death. He minted coins lighter in weight than the normal denarius, but shortly after his death the Roman denarius was debased making these coins just about right. Thus, Antony's coins circulated for several hundred years. That is why so many of these coins show such great wear.
Crawford 544/18; Sear 354
Octavian [Later Augustus] 36 BC. AR denarius
Obv: Bare head of Octavian right; IMP CAESAR DIVI F III VIR ITER R P C.
Rx: Simpulum, sprinkler, vase and lituus; COS ITER ET TER DESIG.
Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; RSC 91

Here is a list of the moneyers active/appointed between 90 and 80 BCE. This is what I use as a personal check list and was adapted from David Sear's "Roman Coins and Their Values" 4th ed.
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